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人物画:初学者指南

figure drawing

+$Figure drawing is a fundamental skill for artists, but one of the hardest to truly master. In this article, I explain my personal process and offer some advice to help you improve your figure drawings.

+$On this page we'll walk through how to draw a female figure. Jump to第2页关于一步一步地绘制男性人物的指南,或第3页仔细看一下手势图。

+$Although having knowledge of the proportions of a human figure is important, bear in mind that these are only a guide. Trying to shoehorn every person you draw into an eight-head-high ideal is a shortcut to uninspiring figure drawing.

+$To achieve style we need to work with gesture, the spirit of the pose, the fluid nature in line. If we take gesture too far, though, our drawing will look wobbly. To counter that we need to also work with a solid structure, but too much structure can make for a stiff drawing. Therein lies the great balancing act of figure drawing that we will explore here.

+$For a more basic guide, see+$how to draw a person

+$Above you can watch one of my-depth video tutorials where I explore how to get the most from references. For step-by-step written instructions on how to draw a female figure, read the tutorial below.

+$After more drawing tips? Take a look at our guide to如何绘制+$pretty much anything, or check out our essential advice on+$foreshortening In Art...或者,用最好的铅笔周围。

+$With that out of the way, let's get started on how to draw the female figure…

单击每个图像右上角的图标将其放大。

01.从简单的形状开始

首先确定你的基本比例

从你的注意力高度开始。我用一小块两指宽的木炭作为我的草图。画出基本比例,做任何必要的调整--特别是当你从一张照片开始工作的时候。

02.增加更复杂的线条

用手势握住这个阶段

+$Starting your figure drawing with basic shapes makes it easier to draw more sophisticated lines on top. Here, I've drawn the face using small shapes inside a big shape. This is two of my disciplines in action at once: big to small; and simple to sophisticated.

+$Note the gestural grip in action. Drawing with our gestural hand enables us to use the rhythm of our arm rather than our stiff wrist to make our marks. It gives us the freedom to draw long fluid lines on the paper (for more advice, see this article on如何正确握笔)。

03.夸大曲线

你不需要完全复制你看到的东西

我一直在分析照片的参考资料。仔细观察一下,看上去是一只脚实际上是扭伤了脚踝。我决定画一只脚的经典形状,以使画得更清楚。我正在改进我在照片中所观察到的艺术标记制作。请注意,我有多少次夸大了曲线,以使绘图更加生动。

04.在木炭中铺上宽阔的色调

是时候增加一些深度了

在这一阶段,我从艺术中退一步,检查图纸是否有坚实的结构。我用木炭躺在宽阔的色调里。记住,我们的目标是解释引用。如果我们用复制的距离来衡量我们的成功,我们最终会得到一幅看起来像扭曲的照片的僵硬的图画。

05.调音

混合绘图意味着你可以调整你想要的任何东西。

到目前为止,我已经把手势和结构结合起来了。这是一幅不错的画,但没有什么时髦的东西。这是技工的舞台,我们可以用它来塑造我们自己的风格。使用组织,我把色调融入形式,这也削弱了绘画,并给了我第二次机会来画得更好的顶部。

06.添加更多的调性手势

Finger smudging charcoal

对你的人形图做一些最后的调整。

在这里,我做了一些小的结构调整,并增加了更多的音调姿态。这是第二次快速进行--只是几分钟的事情,这是一小时的小投资。从这一点开始,我的追求是进一步探索风格的绘画。

07.记住,如果看上去不对,那就错了!

Figure drawing with ribcage area corrected

有时解剖精确的部分看起来不正确。

我用阴影来推动手势,但忽略了剑突的影子(肋骨尖拱下的小骨头)。这里看起来很奇怪。尽管它是正确的,但它违反了我的一条艺术法则:如果它看起来是错误的,它是错误的,即使它是正确的!

08.用纸条作调整

Hand using a drawing stump, with paper underneath to prevent smudging

把木炭推来推去,而不是增加更多

用纸桩,我推周围的木炭已经在纸上,而不是放置更多的木炭下来。这保持了绘画的光和新鲜。我也很注意画画,即使在混合的时候也是如此。我用一张纸来防止我弄脏这幅画。

+$Struggling with to make the medium work for you? Check out our+$ten expert tips for charcoal drawing

09.用橡皮擦创建高光

Charcoal figure with highlights added

把橡皮擦想象成另一个绘图工具

我用可揉捏的橡皮擦“画”高光。我认为橡皮擦是一个绘图工具,而不是一个校正工具。慢慢地去做,特别是在早期阶段。快速绘图是一种错误的经济--如果我们急于抽签,那么我们不可避免地会花费大部分时间来纠正错误。

10.休息一下

Charcoal figure

休息一下意味着你会更容易发现不准确的地方

我喝了一杯咖啡,不再画画,带着一只新的眼睛回来了。当我回来的时候,休息一下能让我更清楚地看到它们。我看到乳房的形状太近了,而下肋骨的保持架太光滑了。我做了小的变化,两个臭虫熊,并为大结局做好了准备。

11.加上背景

Charcoal being smudged using a chamois leather

皮毛皮对创建抽象标记很有用。

+$I lay down a large swath of charcoal, then smudge it with a chamois leather cloth, playing with textures as I go. I learned of the chamois from格伦维尔普+$a few years back and it's been part of my drawing arsenal ever since. Here I use it for abstract marks to ground the figure and add style.

12.介绍幻想的要素

Female figure with breastplate and jewellery added

这里的人物被重新想象成吸血鬼

为了我的形象,我想象一个吸血鬼处于嗜血的恍惚状态。用大木炭棒,我画抽象的形状,然后铅笔在胸板和珠宝使用硬橡皮擦高光。

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