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设计师如何处理抄袭?

“好的艺术家抄袭,伟大的艺术家偷窃。”这是一个引用,通常归功于毕加索,并有着名的灵感来自史蒂夫乔布斯。虽然它是一个令人难忘的zinger,但该线路触及了设计行业中一个普遍存在的问题:我们在巧合,模仿和彻头彻尾的剽窃之间划清界线?

+$Plagiarism isn’t a new problem for designers, but the internet seems to bring more opportunities for pointing fingers (or Tweets) at possible copycat designs. With even the most obscure source material being dredged up on social media, and rightfully defended if a new piece of work emerges that bears more than a passing resemblance, there's more pressure than ever for creatives and brands to play fair. In this day and age when news – and accusations – spread like wildfire, it's also a lot more embarrassing and potentially reputation damaging if you are caught out.

+$Here, we take a look at some high-profile cases of plagiarism, look at their outcomes, and talk to expert, Michael Johnson of强生银行+$, to find out what designers can do to deal with, as well as avoid, such claims.

做你的研究

3M compression tights logo

不仅仅是巧合?

+$One of the most bizarre incidents of uncanny design similarity occurred in January of last year, when a keen-eyed Reddit user noticed a resemblance between the+$Formula 1 logo and a pack of 3M compression tights。两者都有一个带有可比曲线的'F'标志,但这是一个大品牌抄袭的例子还是更无辜的东西?

+$The story spread like wildfire, with industry leading names including Johnson weighing in to discuss the商标标识的危险+$. Shortly after the incident, we caught up with Johnson to hear how coincidences can arise, despite a designer’s best intentions.

Formula 1 logo

+$Formula 1 logo by Wieden + Kennedy

“很容易对这样的例子做出下意识的反应,”约翰逊说,一级方程式和3M之间的骚动。 “是的,他们看起来很相似。是的,它们都使用带衬里的'F',两者都是斜体。但是,从技术上讲,尽管3M去年初提交了注册,但他们的注册本身却深埋在美国商标机器中 - 并且用于医疗服装。它似乎只存在于某个销售点的图片中,甚至不在3M的网站上。“

开始尝试做一些新事物,而不是看似熟悉的东西

迈克尔约翰逊

“现在,威登+肯尼迪+$[the independent advertising agency behind the Formula 1 rebrand) tell me that they did thorough trademark checks in all their relevant categories – but imagine for a moment the enormity of that task."

“有45种不同类别的商品和服务,以及29种图像分类 - 而且只是在欧洲。美国系统略有不同,在一些国家,注册仍然是在纸上和传真上完成的!所以,考虑所有这些,和很容易看出医疗服装的单一申请是如何从跳棋的眼睛中消失的。“

约翰逊补充说,申请和批准注册之间的延迟也允许发现冲突。

因此,研究在设计过程中发挥着重要作用,因为它可以防止头痛进一步发展,但设计师从哪里开始呢?

五管齐下

当谈到检查之前是否已经完成了一件潜在的品牌时,约翰逊有一个五管齐下的方法。

  1. 尝试做一些新的事情而不是看似熟悉的东西。
  2. 冲刷徽标和符号书对于之前已经完成的设计,并尝试在心理上“记录”它们(但不要复制它们)。
  3. 在线进行基本徽标搜索- 但请记住,这些并不是决定性的,只能给你一个广泛的指示。
  4. 训练自己使用商标数据库这是公开的。 (注意,它们很难使用)。
  5. 或者,聘请专业人士

损害控制

Tokyo 2020 logo beside the Theatre De Liege logo

东京2020标志被废弃并重新设计

有时候,尽管有设计师的最大努力和意图,但是可以发布一种与另一件创意作品看起来相似(如果不是几乎相同)的设计。提示社交媒体的愤怒。

+$Practically speaking though, what options do designers and studios have? Should you lick their wounds and start all over again, or do both parties enter stalemate and wait for the other to budge?

“你必须从两个方向看这个,”约翰逊说。 “显然,从创造性的角度来看,如果设计看起来与已经存在的东西非常相似,那就太尴尬了。但是 - 如果他们真的没有看到它 - 并且原件没有注册,我们就会陷入浑水。“

“据我了解,如果您的设计已经被使用了七年,那么您就拥有了真正的版权声明,如果某些内容看起来过于相似,那么您将获得一定程度的合法声明,”约翰逊补充道。

+$“But if your design has lain buried in a portfolio website, unseen really by anyone but your mum and your aunty, it gets much harder.”

如果您的设计已被浏览并使用了七年,则您拥有真正的版权声明

迈克尔约翰逊

+$A notable example of such difficulties is the fiasco surrounding the Tokyo Olympics logo. Unveiled in 2015, the design of a stylised, seriffed letter ‘T’ was在剽窃行之后出现问题当比利时设计师奥利维尔·德比(Olivier Debie)将其与剧院De Liege的标志相似时。

+$As with the Formula 1 logo, the internet descended into a witch-hunt as people decided whether or not the two designs were more than just a coincidence.

“现在,问问自己,”约翰逊说,“日本的设计师怎么会在比利时知道一个象征,那个只有两年的历史,在不同的领域,可能还没有注册?这意味着要在每个类别和类别中对每个'T'标志进行全球符号搜索?“

+$“As it happens, the proposed design was withdrawn and Debie dropped his lawsuit, doubtless realising that he was on sticky, and expensive, legal ground. He may feel that his was a moral victory though.”

保持冷静

Han Solo poster beside similar looking funk album cover

社交媒体揭示了这些令人吃惊的相似之处

+$Looking at the situation from a different angle, what’s the best course of action to take if a piece of design for, say, a huge movie franchise, is released and it looks like it’s borrowed a lot of elements from a piece of work you did years ago? That’s exactly what happened when theSolo的印刷海报:星球大战的故事被揭开了面纱。

最初,设计师很快就赞扬了海报,这是对已建立的特许经营权的原创。不久,直到设计师Hachim Bahous到Facebook指出了这一点海报与一系列专辑封面之间的相似之处他于2015年为Sony Music France创作。

这是一个可以理解的行动方式,以应对当下的热度,但鉴于互联网使得分享你的愤怒令人眼花缭乱,你可能想要在发布状态更新之前三思而后行。

将“您的设计”发布到博客的评论字符串中并没有实现任何目标

迈克尔约翰逊

+$“Be careful before you plaster your ‘original’ all over social media,” warns Johnson. “Posting ‘your design’ into the comment string of a blog doesn’t achieve anything. First of all – is your design registered and trademarked? If so, is it trademarked in the same categories? If not, this will be an issue.

“如果它没有商标,你可以提出'侵犯版权'的主张,但设计必须要么已经七年了,要么已经为世界知名公司做过。如果没有这一切,你可以试着简单地让那些你认为已经扯掉你的人感到尴尬 - 但你最终会遇到的本质上是天真的,可能有点绝望。“

何时采取行动

Image of Mandarin script incorporated into the image of an octopus

+$Johnson Banks encountered a design that resembled its Mandagrams project

抄袭最大的困难之一就是知道何时采取法律行动。从小型设计师到最大的工作室,每个人都面临着一个两难的境地,而且仅仅是类似的东西和彻头彻尾的盗窃之间的模糊边界使情况变得更糟。

甚至像Johnson Banks这样的工作室也很难知道如何在模仿面前继续前进。 “当我们做了'Mandagrams的研究项目在2009/2010,我们采用了一些普通话字符并表达了他们的象形图根,“约翰逊解释道。

“这项工作是在网上分享的,并且是上海展览的一部分 - 所以它被'看见',但可能不在设计和教育观众之外。我们没有想到注册这个设计 - 但两年后,'Chineasy'推出了基本相同的想法。“

“他们知道我们的工作吗?几乎可以确定。他们回复我们的电子邮件/推文吗?不值得我们提出合法索赔吗?嗯,这将取决于我们能够证明我们的想法是独一无二的,并且已经无处不在多年 - 既棘手又争辩,而且非常昂贵。“

+$Hope for a happy ending

+$With all the online disputes and legal battles setting a nasty tone, it is great to hear that some victims of plagiarism end up with a happy ending to their ordeal. Drew Barrymore posted a picture of her daughter wearing a+$Jelly Mallow+$jacket that Canadian illustrator马克约翰斯+$recognised as his own design.

+$After Johns made some serious internet noise, Jelly Mallow got in contact and the two parties came to a mutually beneficial conclusion: Johns was to be paid in full for the backdated royalties, and a proper licensing arrangement has been put in place for current and future collections.

+$You can find out more about this case, and other examples of plagiarism in our piece:被盗的设计作品:丑陋的真相

Drew Barrymore's Instagram post

+$Drew Barrymore's Instagram post alerted Marc Johns to plagiarism of his work

为了解决这个问题,约翰逊补充说,围绕整个抄袭主题存在大量的虚假信息。 “所有年龄段的设计师都没有真正意识到这个领域面临的问题,”他说。

+$“Yes, it’s annoying when something comes up that seems to have ripped you off – but take care before you start any form of legal action. I think it all comes down to the fact that, whilst ‘copyright’ does lie with whoever has created a particular logo, trademark registration seems to beats copyright.

商标注册似乎胜过版权

迈克尔约翰逊

+$“The two big lessons for all of us are that, one: you should start off trying to design something that hasn’t been done before – it’s much easier to protect. And two: however great you think that logo is, there’s a chance that it’s been done before.

“对于我们的大型身份项目,一旦我们接受最终的两三个受欢迎的设计,我们将始终建议在最终决策之前在该阶段进行商标搜索。是的,它可能会淘汰最爱。但最好早点知道,你不觉得吗?“

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