创造强大的艺术作品:21个专业技巧

+$Strong artistic compositions are vital to the success of a piece of art. The composition of a piece is what captures a viewer's eye and holds their attention once they take a closer look.

+$Artistic composition can totally change the mood of a piece of art, changing it from vibrant energy to solemn contemplation. But how does this happen? Why do some seemingly beautifully rendered pictures fail to hold up whereas others captivate viewers?

+$Many rules dictate what makes a good composition, for example the黄金比例,金色螺旋和三分法则+$. However, it is crucial we don't approach these theories as unbreakable rules but see them as suggestions, or optional templates.

+$We'll discuss some of these techniques throughout this article, explain why they are successful and how you can use that knowledge to make a better image.

首先,您真正需要知道的是:良好的构图只不过是令人愉悦的形状,颜色和色调排列。这真的很简单。很有可能,你们大多数人都可以闭着眼睛做出很好的构图。

点击图片右上角的图标来放大它. 

+$01. Tell The Story

+$Ask yourself: what's the story? [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Whether it’s a professional brief or notes for a personal piece, the first step is to think about the story. Which elements are crucial to telling the story, which are secondary, and which add tertiary support? This is how you figure out the hierarchy of elements in your piece. Here, the confrontation between the warrior and the dragon should be paramount, but the secondary elements, such as the wrecked wooden platform, need to support the central narrative of the piece.

+$02. Create Relationships

Powerful artistic compositions: relationships

+$Creating a relationship makes the viewer compare the two shapes, thus creating movement [Image: Dan dos Santos]

+$As simple as this image is, it already has a sense of motion, and depth. How?

+$Through relationships. Causing a disparity between the shapes has given the viewer a means by which they can compare those shapes. "This one is bigger, that one is lighter." The grey square appears to be moving and receding only when compared to the black square.

比较这些形状的过程要求观察者在画布周围反复移动他们的眼睛,并且其中存在一个伟大构图的真正目标:控制眼睛运动。

+$03. Think In Thumbnails

+$Starting with thumbnails can solve many of the design problems ahead of time [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Start with thumbnails that are the same size ratio and orientation as your final image. If the thumbnails are at the wrong dimensions, you'll end up with all your balances off-kilter, and have to rework your design. During this early stage it's important to solve many of the design problems before even thinking about the final image. The delicate balancing of elements can lead to a strong image, while a slight misplacement can change or alter the impact of the image you’re creating.

+$04. Know Shape Matters

+$Canvas shape and size is crucial to the composition of your piece [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Plan for the outside shape of the image. This is a personal piece, therefore the size was able to be set. Commissioned pieces don't allow for this luxury and the artist has to react to the dimensions provided. Everything in your image needs to relate to the border dimensions. That’s why the canvas size is crucial. It creates the framing device for the image – the shape that the viewer will be looking through. Once the outer dimensions are established, the design can be approached from a few different directions.

+$05. Develop Dynamic Symmetry

+$Great compositions use geometry. Here’s an example of how dynamic symmetry helps to take this piece to a deeper compositional level…

+$a) Line art 

+$Draw the lines to find the primary point of interest [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Using the initial sketch, draw a line from the top right corner to the lower left corner. Then, from the top left corner draw a line at right angles to  the first line. This is the primary point of interest, and where you'll paint the dragon’s eye.

+$b) Identify Edges

+$Establish the important elements of the platform [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Draw a line straight across at the primary point to establish the dragon’s eyeline. Then place a line from the bottom right corner at a right angle to the original line. These help to establish important elements like the edge of the platform, the orc’s side and the dragon’s wing.

+$c) Check placement of elements

+$See where the characters are in the diamond shape [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Next, repeat these steps, starting at the top-left corner. Using these guides, locate the edge of the platform, the left wing and the warrior’s hands. This enables you to see that the warrior is right in the middle of the diamond shape. The dragon’s head, shifted right, is now in the upper diamond

+$06. Apply the Golden Ratio

+$The Golden Ratio expresses itself as a spiral [Image: mathsbyagirl.wordpress.com]

+$Sometimes, dynamic symmetry doesn't feel right for a piece and this is where The Golden Ratio is most useful. This Greek mathematical equation expresses itself as a spiral. Many of the most famous pieces of art use this ratio to decide on the placement of elements and as a natural way to lead the eye across an image. It’s so embedded in our natural world and our humanity that we often use the ratio without realising it.

+$They believed that all things, both tangible and intangible, have a perfect state of being that define them. They also felt that one should always strive toward achieving this ideal state, be it in mathematics, one's physique, politics or aesthetics.

+$The spiral has created harmony between elements [Image: Steve Ellis]

希腊数学家在反复看到自然界和几何学中相似的比例之后,为他们认为理想的矩形开发了一个数学公式:一个边长为1:1.62的矩形。

他们觉得所有比例都表现出来的物品更令人愉悦,无论是建筑物,脸部还是艺术品。直到今天,书籍甚至信用卡仍然符合这一理想。

+$In the case of the image above, the spiral has been used to create a harmony for the elements of interest, such as the wolf’s eyes, Morrigan, the tree and the ravens.

+$07. Channel The Rule of Thirds

+$Dulac abided by The Rule of Thirds [Image: wikiart.org]

这表明如果将任何合成分成垂直和水平三分之一,则将图像的关键元素沿这些线或它们的交汇点放置。你会得到一个更愉快的安排。但它有效吗?

让我们来看看Edmund Dulac的画作“小美人鱼:王子问她是谁”(上图)。杜拉克非常善于利用空位来获得优势,部分原因是因为他倾向于遵守三分法则。

+$The line of thirds has been used perfectly [Image: Dan dos Santos]

在这里,杜拉克已经将柱子和地平线完美地放置在一条三分线上。但如果他没有呢?

+$The result is less successful with the column and horizon in the centre position [Image: Dan dos Santos]

如果列和水平线位于图像的中心,则结果不太成功。该列主导了图像,从图中窃取了焦点。

观众的眼睛现在粘在这个将画布一分为二的强烈形状上,而不是像原来那样在图像周围徘徊。

+$08. Learn how the rules work

三分法则之所以有效是因为它要求艺术家使一个元素比另一个元素更具优势。这种支配造成了不平衡,任何形式的不平衡总会吸引观众的注意力。

将图像完美地分成两半会产生最少的兴趣,因为一切都是平衡的。

+$Making one area of your composition more dominant creates tension, and therefore adds interest. It also makes your eyes move around the canvas more to compare all of these relationships.

将构图分成精确的三分之一的事实实际上意义不大。你可以将成分分为四分之五,五分之一甚至十分之一。只要存在某种不平衡,组合物就会表现出紧张感。正如您很快就会看到的,这种不平衡的概念适用于构图的许多方面,包括价值和颜色。

+$09. Use Implied Lines

+$Implied lines guide the reader's eye [Image: Steve Ellis]

这些可能是作文最重要的方面,因为你首先注意到它们。在现实地绘画时,主题周围没有实际的线条。

轮廓的错觉是不同的值和颜色对比的结果。但是即使是一条线的印象也很强烈,我们的眼睛会按照它的长度直到它结束,或直到它遇到另一条线,我们将再次跟随它。一个伟大的组合强烈利用这种线条的自然吸引力。

+$Sweeping action or movements across a piece will draw the eye from one side of a composition to the other. Using strong, direct action lines built into elements of the picture can move the eye to the point you want. In non-action pieces or in the calmer areas of action scenes, use elements such as flowing cloth, curling smoke or even directional brush strokes in the sky – all subtle trails that the eye can follow to the image’s focal point. Here, the waves, the tentacles and the shape of the sail direct the eye.

+$10. Reinforce those focal points

+$Implied lines can also create focal points [Image: Dan dos Santos]

除了使用隐含线条在构图周围绘制眼睛外,您还可以使用相同的方法让某人立即看到您选择的焦点。

实际上,您可以从多个方向重复执行此操作。当您的图像是肖像或画眉时,这尤其有用,而角色的脸部是最重要的元素。

+$Surrounding objects should point to your character to draw the eye in [Image: Dan dos Santos]

为了更多地关注特定角色,请尝试使周围的物体(如手臂,剑和建筑物)指向您的主体。您还可以使用隐含线条构图主体的脸部,将观看者的眼睛锁定到位。

+$11. Create drama via a point of view

+$The viewer should be at the head of the warrior to create drama [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$For an emotionally effective piece such as this, the viewer should place themselves in the head of the warrior. Our hero – and thus the viewer – should feel overwhelmed and outmatched, but still willing to fight. To achieve this, the villain has been placed above the midpoint of the picture. The angle has been canted a bit to throw the viewer off-kilter as well. That way, the villain is literally looming over us as well as the boy.

+$12. See Threes Everywhere

+$Think in general arrangements of foreground, middle-ground and background [Image: wikiart.org]

+$The Rule of Thirds seems to work its way into most aspects of picture making, and value is no exception. When constructing compositions, think in general arrangements of foreground, middle-ground and background.

+$To heighten the relationship between these three depths, try to restrict each to a range of value, favouring black, white or grey. For instance, you can let the background predominately be white tones, the middle-ground predominantly greys and the foreground predominantly black tones.

当然,这三个值的任何安排都可行。通过限制您在这些区域的价值,您可以增强图像的深度感,使轮廓更容易阅读 - 而且易读性非常重要。

+$Look to the Old Masters to see Triptich value schemes [Image: wikiart.org]

泥泞的价值观伤害了观众识别形状的能力,特别是在小范围内。这就是为什么你会在交易卡艺术中经常使用这种技术的原因。当您的图像只有几英寸高时,高对比度的成分效果特别好。

像这样的三联价值计划在古代大师的作品中很明显,特别是在古斯塔夫·多雷的版画中。

他的画作都展示了黑色,白色和灰色的不同排列,以强调前景,中景和背景之间的差异。

+$13. Harness the power of triangles

+$The diamonds draw attention to the faces of the characters [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Compositions are often based around strong, simple shapes. Here, the heroes in this piece need to have an individual moment to themselves, but also to fit together as a team. Because a triangle is a strong shape the team has been composed so that its various elements led the eye to the orc paladin’s head (the green triangle). And because the background is also arranged as a downwards-pointing triangle (the blue triangle), it creates a diamond shape where the heads of the main figures are approximately placed. All of this is meant to pull the reader towards the expressions on the characters’ faces.

+$14. Be clever with colour

+$Contrast dark and bright colours [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Colour is an amazing tool for composition. In a piece where I want something to hit hard I’ll use a lot of contrasting value of colour as well as complementary colour. A bright warm colour in the middle of a field of cool can really pop out of a scene and draw the viewer’s eye. Here, the word ‘Cyclone’ is a dark red so that contrasts against the blue of the water, while the eyes of the serpent are bright yellow against the dark turquoise of the sky. The boy has been highlighted with yellow and a lighter skin tone, to bring him forward against the sign and the water.

+$Use black and white carefully to focus the eye [Image: Dan dos Santos]

黑色和白色本身就是强大的色调。如果您谨慎使用它们,并且彼此相邻,您可以轻松地将观众的注意力吸引到特定的位置。

绘画时,尽量保留最纯净的白色和黑色作为焦点。例如,如果你的主角有非常苍白的皮肤,试着在它们上面放置一些非常黑的东西,比如黑头发或黑色衣服。

+$This is one of the easiest and most successful ways of making your subject pop. In the above painting, Blood Divided, this has the effect of sitting the heroine apart from the background.

+$15. Consider Your Angle

+$Tip the camera angle to add excitement [Image: Dan dos Santos]

不平衡可以为你的作品创造一个更令人兴奋的流程,但它也可以增加戏剧效果。下次您的绘画不够刺激时,请尝试倾斜相机角度。

即使是地平线上最轻微的一点也可以将平凡的场景变成一个很酷的动作镜头。尝试不同摄影角度创造的心理印象。

直,这幅画缺乏真正的兴奋。砖块,雨水和头发都创造出简单的垂直线条,并没有做太多的事情来增强这件作品的戏剧效果。倾斜图像给它带来全新的感觉。

+$The sense of weight changes the dynamic between the characters [Image: Dan dos Santos]

突然间,看起来这个女人被撞到了墙上。他们的姿势也有更多的重量感

+$16. Assess The Silhouette

+$Make sure the silhouette is interesting [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$When planning a painting, think about how the image will look as a silhouette. Compositionally, the silhouette is the outer edge of the main forms of the foreground objects or figures. If it works in black and white as a composition then there’s a good chance that the composition should work fine in colour, if you don’t mess around with the colour values too much. Also, make sure that the silhouette is interesting and background elements don’t compete with it.

+$17. Vary symmetry or asymmetry

+$Mixing up the elements keeps things exciting [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Symmetry is great at telegraphing order and calm, but it can be pretty unexciting. Sometimes, as with this portrait, think about bilateral symmetry, but vary the elements a bit to keep the piece feeling active: the expression in the eyes, and the positioning, shape and size of the different tentacles, for example. Also balance the background elements without repeating them, so that they retain a sense of energy.

+$18. Play it big and bold

+$Use simple shapes to create points of interest [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$Sometimes it pays to be blatant with your design elements. Just look at any Norman Rockwell Saturday Evening Post cover. I’ll often use a giant circle on one of my points of interest in a piece, creating a halo around the main character or action. This draws the viewer’s attention to anything that breaks out of that circle. Taking this approach also works with other simple shapes, such as a diamond or a triangle.

+$19. Think ahead to the final product

+$Different types of art have different compositional needs [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$It’s important to think about the final home of the art. Is it a game card or book cover, or will it hang on a wall? Gallery art has different compositional needs than a card image or a 6x9-inch comic book cover. While a strong composition will work on many levels, the intensity of detail needed for a larger reproduction may not be necessary for a tiny card. Simple shape compositions can be strongest for small pieces, but might seem too simple when enlarged.

+$20. Stay Loose

+$Do some unstructured sketching to keep things fresh [Image: Steve Ellis]

+$While such advice can help to create strong images, if they ever become restrictive, throw out the rules and do some unstructured sketching. Use bigger, looser, bolder strokes and shapes and then go back to these tips. In the end you never want to lose the spontaneity in the image, otherwise it loses its fun. If making the art isn’t fun for the artist, it won’t be fun for the viewer.

+$21. Put it all together

一个好的作品是艺术家控制观众眼睛运动的有益结果。

+$Reinforce the focal points with The Rule of Thirds [Image: Dan dos Santos]

我们可以通过多种方式实现这一点,例如用三分法增强焦点,隐含线,值的对比度和选择性颜色饱和度。

+$Jean-Léon Gérôme's Duel After a Masquerade Ball is the perfect example of using all compositional devices [image: artrenewal.org]

Jean-LéonGérôme的Duel After a Masquerade Ball将所有这些工具全部投入使用,是您使用所有组合设备的完美典范。

+$This content originally appeared inImagineFX;订阅这里

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