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铅笔画技巧:提高技巧的专业技巧

Pencil drawing techniques: drawing of a cat with the sketcher's hand [image: Bobby Chiu]

这些来自顶尖艺术家的铅笔绘画技巧将帮助你将你的绘画技巧提升到更高的水平,无论你是用石墨铅笔还是彩色铅笔。

对许多艺术家来说,铅笔画是将他们引入艺术世界的技巧,即使你已经进入了一种不同的媒介,理解如何绘制用铅笔可以帮助你提高其他地方的技能。这些铅笔绘制技术涵盖一切,从做标记的基础到先进的过程,以推动你走出你的舒适区。

我们还将就你需要了解的工具和材料提供建议,例如混合树桩、纸张选项和不同的橡皮擦。如果你是一个完全初学者,或者只是想升级你的工具包,看看我们的指南最好的铅笔

准时吗?上面的视频,来自角色设计师Bobby Chiu,通过一些实际操作中的铅笔绘图技术。关于构图如何捕捉光线和阴影的更深入的建议,请看我们的艺术技巧文章,或者,为了获得灵感,请看一下这篇令人难以置信的总结性文章。逼真的铅笔画

01.使用右手柄

把铅笔想象成木鞘中的木炭

第一步是掌握如何正确握笔..赵先生建议拿着铅笔,就像拿一块木炭一样,用铅的侧面来画,而不是用点。这有助于使削笔时间更长。

+$"When covering large areas, I shade with my pencil perpendicular to the line I'm drawing to get wide, soft lines," he adds. "For details, I hold my pencil parallel to my lines to get sharp, narrow marks. The only time I use the point is when I'm working on intricate details."

02.用树桩做软调合

在色彩层间使用树桩会产生混合效果[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

你如何混合你的工作会对最终的结果产生很大的影响。要获得柔和的混合效果,请尝试混合树桩。

+$"After each light layer, I very gently blend the coloured pencils with the stump," says US-based artist詹妮弗希利..“不要太用力,否则颜色会粘在一起,使它更难柔和地混合。我经常重复这个过程。经过多层处理后,它会产生非常柔软和细腻的外观。”

不过,这项技术需要一些尝试和错误。希利警告说,如果你的混合太轻,树桩可以恢复颜色,你已经在纸上分层。

03.混合遮阳技术

在补丁中使用统一线条和阴影的阴影会产生一种不同的感觉[图像:鲍比·邱]

+$There are lots of different pencil drawing techniques relating to shading. Chiu uses two main approaches. The first is with all the lines going in the same direction. "This makes my shading appear more cohesive, and helps my details pop out from the lines I'm using for shading," he explains.

+$The second method involves working in patches of shading, to help define shape. "Patches of lines go around the form, which help keep things in perspective," he says. This technique is also great for backgrounds and creating texture.

04.尝试不同的提纲方法

希利更喜欢深色的轮廓[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

+$The next drawing technique concerns line weight. As well as demarcating different objects, lines can help emphasise shadows. "Thicker lines can fade and disappear into the shadows, which can help convey the 3D form," explains Chiu.

+$Beyond that, different artists have different approaches to lines – you need to find the style that's right for you. "I prefer to use a distinct outline in my artwork, whether it’s using thin outlines or bold outlines," says Healy. "It can help pinpoint the viewer’s eye to a certain area. It also gives a stylised look, if that’s what you are hoping to achieve."

然而,邱更倾向于一种不同的方法。“我尽量避免勾勒出我的画,因为这样会使物体看起来平坦,并使3D效果黯然失色。我的线条中的间隙和空间在灯光和阴影中显示形式。”

05.主调合

从轮廓开始,然后建立色彩[图像:詹妮弗希利]

希利有一个特殊的过程来混合她的彩色铅笔作品。她从一个大纲开始,在提交彩色铅笔之前检查表格是否正确(擦除彩色区域比轮廓要难得多)。这也有助于她的计划,那里的亮点和阴影将下降。

+$She then builds up colour using subtle layers. "I like to start out with soft gentle layers to gain a better idea of lighting placement, shadows and the colour palette," she says. After each layer she blends gently using the blending stump.

最后一步是添加一个大纲[图片:JenniferHealy]

一旦她达到了她满意的阶段,她就进入了最后一步:添加一个大纲。对于最后一层,希利只使用彩色铅笔,不与树桩混合。

06.找到正确的纸张纹理

粗糙的牙齿会抓住颜料[图片:詹妮弗希利]

你正在处理的表面纹理将对你所能创造的效果产生很大的影响。这被称为纸张的颗粒或“牙齿”。一颗粗糙的牙齿更明显,凸起的纹路会抓住你铅笔上的颜色。

光滑的牙齿,脊很细,抓地力也很小。希利发现,这种纸提供了一个更容易的表面混合彩色铅笔,但她警告说,它也很容易将颜色从表面。

07.轻轻松松地开始,然后从那里开始建造

用浅色线来探索,用暗线来提交[图片:鲍比·邱]

+$"When I start drawing, I plan and explore using loose lines, and avoid committing too early with hard, dark lines," says Chiu. "As I progress my lines will change, so checking and rechecking my work is vital. I darken my lines and add details at the end. I don't focus on one area for too long to prevent overdrawing."

08.从未透支开始

提款应该是一个指南,但是要用你的直觉。

(图片来源:Tim Von Reuden)

艺术家蒂姆·冯·鲁登他喜欢从数字透支开始,他以1%的不透明度打印出来。上面,你可以看到他的素描中,一个女人拿着一根棍子。他解释道:“我喜欢保持它的轻盈,这样它就能成为基础,而不是最终的形象。”

冯·雷登继续说:“我坚信让直觉在创造过程中占据主导地位,所以我更多地以欠画作为指导。”这意味着最终结果是不同的。

09.使用正确的橡皮擦

有几种不同类型的橡皮擦,每一种都适合不同的东西。你肯定需要一个揉捏的橡皮擦。这有一个像油灰一样的一致性(有时被称为油灰橡皮擦),你在使用之前和之后都要揉搓它。

+$"A kneaded eraser is best for lightly picking up the coloured pencil binding off the paper. This works wonders when correcting mistakes, or if you’re deliberately lifting colour from an area such as the eyes," says Healy.

一个口香糖橡皮擦有一个更坚实的一致性,并更好,如果你试图完全擦除一个彩色的区域。

10.统一你的颜色

使用彩色纸可以帮助在你的图画中创造凝聚力[图片:詹妮弗希利]

+$Having a uniform approach to colour will help bring cohesiveness to your work. "It’s a good idea to make sure that your artwork has unifying colours," says Healy. "This consists of a particular colour palette, mood and a way of spreading these across the entire art piece."

她还建议通过使用彩色纸或添加背景颜色(在油漆中)来创建一个和谐的基础。“无论你躺在上面什么地方,这都会显示出来,从而使它看起来很有凝聚力。当我用彩色铅笔时,我喜欢用卡夫生产的彩色纸。”

11.检查和复查

听着,如果你的直觉告诉你有什么不对劲的话(图片:赵波比)

在您开始更强的线条和细节工作之前,必须确保您的格式是正确的。赵先生的建议是再检查一遍。“在添加细节之前,我必须先确定一下我画的底座。我真的避免猜测细节;我想要确保事物是对称的,在放下更有力、更硬的线条之前,要正确地看一看。”

他还建议用镜子或相机来观察你的作品。考虑不同的优势点是一个很好的方式来强调,如果有什么是错的。“我不停地问自己,这感觉对吗?如果有什么不对劲的话-即使我不能马上把手指伸向实际情况-我相信自己的直觉,并在继续画之前排除问题。”

12.借鉴自己的经验

+$"Dip into your experiences to add a special layer of authenticity to your piece," suggests Healy. "This means using something like a memory, feeling or scent when creating your work. For example, the special feeling you experienced when sitting down with a friend at a coffee shop, or a memory of a childhood experience. You can be abstract or use hyperrealism. Whatever you choose makes the piece unique to you. I’ve found that people resonate with these pieces the most."

13.保护你的文件

把你的论文贴在黑板上,提供一个坚实的基础[图片:詹妮弗希利]

对于初学者来说,这是一种很有价值的铅笔画技巧:把一张纸放在我的手上,以免在你工作的时候弄脏你的画。这似乎是显而易见的,但它可能是一个伟大的作品的失败!

希利也更喜欢把她的纸贴在一块木板上,用一层哑光介质..这有助于保持整洁,并提供一个坚实的表面进行工作。

14.知道何时停止

这事结束了吗?也许是…[图片:赵文雄]

+$The majority of artists have a tendency to tinker with their work – even after they've signed their name. "I can always find something to change if I look hard enough, so it can be difficult to tell when a piece is truly finished," says Chiu.

+$However, be wary of overworking your piece. "Eventually, I make a conscious decision to put my drawing away and start something new," he continues. "That's when I consider my drawing done. Well, maybe..."

15.使用对比概念

美与丑并置,构成有趣的构图[意象:詹妮弗·希利]

+$One drawing technique Healy uses in her work is to use contrasting concepts within a piece of work, for example, juxtaposing beauty and ugliness. "I’ll use the beauty of colours, flowers, the softness of skin or hair, and the female form. I’ll also tend to use something that’s the opposite to all of that, such as bones, insects, sharp teeth, or anything that may provide discomfort to the viewer," she elaborates. "Somehow this provides an interesting concept to a piece. Especially when the ‘ugly’ parts are harder to spot at first. To me this is a very stark representation of what life is like."

16.尝试把铅笔和水彩画结合起来

结合不同媒体创造新效果的实验[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

虽然铅笔本身可以创造出丰富的不同效果,但将它们与其他媒体结合起来是很有趣的。例如,在她的作品中,希利喜欢把水彩画和彩色铅笔结合起来。她解释说,重要的是从水彩画开始,然后在上面涂上彩色铅笔,因为铅笔可以形成一个蜡状的表面,排斥液体,防止水彩浸入纸中。

+$"This is a fun technique to test out," she says. "Both mediums have unique qualities and textures. Combining the two elements creates a medium all of its own."

17.冲出你的舒适区

有时无视规则是件好事[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

+$While these pencil drawing techniques should help you understand the essentials of the medium, sometimes you need to throw the rules out of the window and find what works for you. "There’s nothing wrong with stepping outside of the box if it means achieving the effect you want," says Healy. "Trial and error will occur when you step outside of that box. But don’t be intimidated! The process is entirely fun."

18.创造织物

捕捉材料的纹理

(图片来源:Tim Von Reuden)

面料可以是光滑的,发亮的,也可以是哑光的和钝的。你如何遮荫,它将有助于销售的想法,你想要描绘的织物。对于这张素描,冯·雷登试图捕捉原始图像中发现的黄金褶皱。他一开始就勾勒出影子的形状和遮挡阴影的区域。

19.把你的织物分类

你画织物的方式可以分为三种

(图片来源:Tim Von Reuden)

Vonreuden解释了如何增加价值和阴影,以创造更多的深度和重量。他说,“当绘制和再造织物时,所产生的皱纹类型都可以分为三个不同的类别:悬挂/放松、拉伸/拉伸和皱缩/压缩。”

悬挂式织物往往松散,外观流畅。拉伸后的织物形成长线,通常有一个支撑点。压缩织物相互缠绕,形成皱巴巴的区域。

这个建议来自ImagineFX,这是全球最畅销的数字艺术家杂志。在这里订阅

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