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铅笔画技巧:提高技巧的专业技巧

Pencil drawing techniques
+$(Image credit: Timothy von Reuden)

这些来自顶尖艺术家的铅笔绘画技巧将帮助你将你的绘画技巧提升到更高的水平,无论你是用石墨铅笔还是彩色铅笔。

对许多艺术家来说,铅笔画是将他们引入艺术世界的技巧,即使你已经进入了一种不同的媒介,理解如何绘制用铅笔可以帮助你提高其他地方的技能。这些铅笔绘制技术涵盖一切,从做标记的基础到先进的过程,以推动你走出你的舒适区。

+$We'll also offer advice on the tools and materials you need to know, such as blending stumps, paper options, and different erasers.

准时吗?上面的视频,来自角色设计师Bobby Chiu,通过一些实际操作中的铅笔绘图技术。关于构图如何捕捉光线和阴影的更深入的建议,请看我们的艺术技巧文章,或者,为了获得灵感,请看一下这篇令人难以置信的总结性文章。逼真的铅笔画

+$01. Pick the right pencil

Different types of pencil

+$Choose between traditional (left) and mechanical pencils+$(Image credit: Timothy von Reuden)

+$The pencil you choose will have a big impact on both the techniques you can use and the look of your find artwork. Different pencil types are better for different styles of artwork, and you also need to consider the hardness of your lead.

+$Traditional pencils are given a hardness value that runs from B (soft) to H (hard). These tend to round out quickly, and so need regular sharpening to produce a consistent-sized tip. The softer your pencil, the more sharpening you'll need to do. Traditional pencils are great for shading, especially larger areas.

+$The other main option is a mechanical pencil. These offer clean, crisp edges, and are better at maintaining a consistent line. You don't need to sharpen them, either. If you're creating a large artwork, bear in mind that a mechanical pencil can slow the drawing process. For a more in-depth look at your options, take a look at our guide to the最好的铅笔

+$02. Use the right grip

把铅笔想象成木鞘中的木炭

第一步是掌握如何正确握笔..赵先生建议拿着铅笔,就像拿一块木炭一样,用铅的侧面来画,而不是用点。这有助于使削笔时间更长。

+$"When covering large areas, I shade with my pencil perpendicular to the line I'm drawing to get wide, soft lines," he adds. "For details, I hold my pencil parallel to my lines to get sharp, narrow marks. The only time I use the point is when I'm working on intricate details."

+$03. Start with an underdrawing

Underdrawing of a woman

提款应该是一个指南,但是要用你的直觉。+$(Image credit: Timothy von Reuden)

+$Many artists prefer to start their pencil drawing by laying out the scene with a rough, light underdrawing – this can be especially useful if the end game is a precise line drawing. "Having a more fluid foundation helps you see the end result without the intimidating commitment of getting everything perfect," says artist+$Timothy Von Reuden

+$For a pencil underdrawing, make sure you use a hard lead (around 2H) to ensure the lines are light and easy to erase. Alternatively, you could use a digital underdrawing, printed at 1 per cent Opacity. Either way, make sure this acts as a foundation rather than a strict guide. "I strongly believe in letting intuition take over in the creation process, so I work with the underdrawing more as a guideline," continues Von Reuden.

+$04. Work Left-to-right

+$Pencils are prone to smudging, and the softer they are, the more difficult it is to keep things clean. However, planning which area of the composition you work on first can help. Essentially you don't want to be resting your hand on areas you've already drawn, which means that unless you have an unusual pencil grip, you want to be working top to bottom. Then right-handers should work left to right, and lefties move right to left.

+$05. Vary Line Thickness

Varied line thickness can help add depth to a drawing

+$Varied line thickness can help add depth to a drawing+$(Image credit: Timothy von Reuden)

+$Varying the thickness of the line you use help guide your viewer through your drawing, explains Von Reuden. Thicker lines can help indicate importance, or tell the viewer that something is in the foreground of the scene. They can also be used to distinguish between two separate, overlapping objects – a thicker line on the outside of an object an help differentiate the outside lines of the subject matter from the lines that represent the details within.

+$In the example above, you can see how different line weights can be combined to make a form appear more three-dimensional.

+$06. Use a stump for soft blending

在色彩层间使用树桩会产生混合效果[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

你如何混合你的工作会对最终的结果产生很大的影响。要获得柔和的混合效果,请尝试混合树桩。

+$"After each light layer, I very gently blend the coloured pencils with the stump," says US-based artist詹妮弗希利..“不要太用力,否则颜色会粘在一起,使它更难柔和地混合。我经常重复这个过程。经过多层处理后,它会产生非常柔软和细腻的外观。”

不过,这项技术需要一些尝试和错误。希利警告说,如果你的混合太轻,树桩可以恢复颜色,你已经在纸上分层。

+$07. Mix up shading techniques

在补丁中使用统一线条和阴影的阴影会产生一种不同的感觉[图像:鲍比·邱]

+$There are lots of different pencil drawing techniques relating to shading. Chiu uses two main approaches. The first is with all the lines going in the same direction. "This makes my shading appear more cohesive, and helps my details pop out from the lines I'm using for shading," he explains.

+$The second method involves working in patches of shading, to help define shape. "Patches of lines go around the form, which help keep things in perspective," he says. This technique is also great for backgrounds and creating texture.

+$08. With detail work, control your lines

Detailed pencil drawing

+$Step back regularly to check the overall effect+$(Image credit: Timothy von Reuden)

+$If you're working on a detailed area, be wary of your pencil line. "When it comes to creating cleaner and tighter line work, staying consistent is key," says Von Reuden. "Not only should you be aware of the look of your line but also the pressure you’re applying to the pencil and on the paper. Be actively aware at this stage and don’t rush it." He suggests regularly stepping back to check the overall effect of your work, and ensure you're keeping your line steady throughout.

+$09. Try different approaches to outlines

希利更喜欢深色的轮廓[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

+$The next drawing technique concerns line weight. As well as demarcating different objects, lines can help emphasise shadows. "Thicker lines can fade and disappear into the shadows, which can help convey the 3D form," explains Chiu.

+$Beyond that, different artists have different approaches to lines – you need to find the style that's right for you. "I prefer to use a distinct outline in my artwork, whether it’s using thin outlines or bold outlines," says Healy. "It can help pinpoint the viewer’s eye to a certain area. It also gives a stylised look, if that’s what you are hoping to achieve."

然而,邱更倾向于一种不同的方法。“我尽量避免勾勒出我的画,因为这样会使物体看起来平坦,并使3D效果黯然失色。我的线条中的间隙和空间在灯光和阴影中显示形式。”

+$10. Master Blending

从轮廓开始,然后建立色彩[图像:詹妮弗希利]

希利有一个特殊的过程来混合她的彩色铅笔作品。她从一个大纲开始,在提交彩色铅笔之前检查表格是否正确(擦除彩色区域比轮廓要难得多)。这也有助于她的计划,那里的亮点和阴影将下降。

+$She then builds up colour using subtle layers. "I like to start out with soft gentle layers to gain a better idea of lighting placement, shadows and the colour palette," she says. After each layer she blends gently using the blending stump.

最后一步是添加一个大纲[图片:JenniferHealy]

一旦她达到了她满意的阶段,她就进入了最后一步:添加一个大纲。对于最后一层,希利只使用彩色铅笔,不与树桩混合。

+$11. Find the right paper texture

粗糙的牙齿会抓住颜料[图片:詹妮弗希利]

你正在处理的表面纹理将对你所能创造的效果产生很大的影响。这被称为纸张的颗粒或“牙齿”。一颗粗糙的牙齿更明显,凸起的纹路会抓住你铅笔上的颜色。

光滑的牙齿,脊很细,抓地力也很小。希利发现,这种纸提供了一个更容易的表面混合彩色铅笔,但她警告说,它也很容易将颜色从表面。

+$12. Start lightly and build from there

用浅色线来探索,用暗线来提交[图片:鲍比·邱]

+$"When I start drawing, I plan and explore using loose lines, and avoid committing too early with hard, dark lines," says Chiu. "As I progress my lines will change, so checking and rechecking my work is vital. I darken my lines and add details at the end. I don't focus on one area for too long to prevent overdrawing."

+$13. Clean up after yourself

Pencil drawing being erased

+$Clean up your work as you go along+$(Image credit: Timothy von Reuden)

+$Your eraser can be just as important as the pencil itself. There are a few different types (see the next step for a guide), but whichever you choose you want to make sure it's close to hand whenever you're working. "Whenever a line gets too thick, I either erase the entire line or try to line up the eraser edge to slim down the existing line," says Von Reuden. "I like to clean up during the entire process and at the end do a final sweep to make sure I didn’t miss an area before calling it done."

+$14. Use the right eraser

+$There are a few different types of eraser, and each is suited to different things. Many pencils have a small eraser head, which is ideal for thinning out lines that get too thick. However, don't rely on this alone: you'll also want to invest in a kneaded eraser. This has a putty-like consistency (it's sometimes called a putty eraser), and you knead it before and after use.

+$"A kneaded eraser is best for lightly picking up the coloured pencil binding off the paper. This works wonders when correcting mistakes, or if you’re deliberately lifting colour from an area such as the eyes," says Healy. A gum eraser has a more solid consistency, and is better if you're trying to fully erase a coloured-in area.

+$15. Unify Your Colours

使用彩色纸可以帮助在你的图画中创造凝聚力[图片:詹妮弗希利]

+$Having a uniform approach to colour will help bring cohesiveness to your work. "It’s a good idea to make sure that your artwork has unifying colours," says Healy. "This consists of a particular colour palette, mood and a way of spreading these across the entire art piece."

她还建议通过使用彩色纸或添加背景颜色(在油漆中)来创建一个和谐的基础。“无论你躺在上面什么地方,这都会显示出来,从而使它看起来很有凝聚力。当我用彩色铅笔时,我喜欢用卡夫生产的彩色纸。”

+$16. Check And Recheck

听着,如果你的直觉告诉你有什么不对劲的话(图片:赵波比)

在您开始更强的线条和细节工作之前,必须确保您的格式是正确的。赵先生的建议是再检查一遍。“在添加细节之前,我必须先确定一下我画的底座。我真的避免猜测细节;我想要确保事物是对称的,在放下更有力、更硬的线条之前,要正确地看一看。”

他还建议用镜子或相机来观察你的作品。考虑不同的优势点是一个很好的方式来强调,如果有什么是错的。“我不停地问自己,这感觉对吗?如果有什么不对劲的话-即使我不能马上把手指伸向实际情况-我相信自己的直觉,并在继续画之前排除问题。”

+$17. Draw on your own experiences

+$"Dip into your experiences to add a special layer of authenticity to your piece," suggests Healy. "This means using something like a memory, feeling or scent when creating your work. For example, the special feeling you experienced when sitting down with a friend at a coffee shop, or a memory of a childhood experience. You can be abstract or use hyperrealism. Whatever you choose makes the piece unique to you. I’ve found that people resonate with these pieces the most."

+$18. Protect Your Paper

把你的论文贴在黑板上,提供一个坚实的基础[图片:詹妮弗希利]

对于初学者来说,这是一种很有价值的铅笔画技巧:把一张纸放在我的手上,以免在你工作的时候弄脏你的画。这似乎是显而易见的,但它可能是一个伟大的作品的失败!

希利也更喜欢把她的纸贴在一块木板上,用一层哑光介质..这有助于保持整洁,并提供一个坚实的表面进行工作。

+$19. Know when to stop

这事结束了吗?也许是…[图片:赵文雄]

+$The majority of artists have a tendency to tinker with their work – even after they've signed their name. "I can always find something to change if I look hard enough, so it can be difficult to tell when a piece is truly finished," says Chiu.

+$However, be wary of overworking your piece. "Eventually, I make a conscious decision to put my drawing away and start something new," he continues. "That's when I consider my drawing done. Well, maybe..."

+$20. Use Contrasting Concepts

美与丑并置,构成有趣的构图[意象:詹妮弗·希利]

+$One drawing technique Healy uses in her work is to use contrasting concepts within a piece of work, for example, juxtaposing beauty and ugliness. "I’ll use the beauty of colours, flowers, the softness of skin or hair, and the female form. I’ll also tend to use something that’s the opposite to all of that, such as bones, insects, sharp teeth, or anything that may provide discomfort to the viewer," she elaborates. "Somehow this provides an interesting concept to a piece. Especially when the ‘ugly’ parts are harder to spot at first. To me this is a very stark representation of what life is like."

+$21. Try combining pencils with watercolour

结合不同媒体创造新效果的实验[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

虽然铅笔本身可以创造出丰富的不同效果,但将它们与其他媒体结合起来是很有趣的。例如,在她的作品中,希利喜欢把水彩画和彩色铅笔结合起来。她解释说,重要的是从水彩画开始,然后在上面涂上彩色铅笔,因为铅笔可以形成一个蜡状的表面,排斥液体,防止水彩浸入纸中。

+$"This is a fun technique to test out," she says. "Both mediums have unique qualities and textures. Combining the two elements creates a medium all of its own."

+$22. Break out of your comfort zone

有时无视规则是件好事[图片:詹妮弗·希利]

+$While these pencil drawing techniques should help you understand the essentials of the medium, sometimes you need to throw the rules out of the window and find what works for you. "There’s nothing wrong with stepping outside of the box if it means achieving the effect you want," says Healy. "Trial and error will occur when you step outside of that box. But don’t be intimidated! The process is entirely fun."

+$23. Create Fabric

捕捉材料的纹理(图片来源:Tim Von Reuden)

面料可以是光滑的,发亮的,也可以是哑光的和钝的。你如何遮荫,它将有助于销售的想法,你想要描绘的织物。对于这张素描,冯·雷登试图捕捉原始图像中发现的黄金褶皱。他一开始就勾勒出影子的形状和遮挡阴影的区域。

+$24. Categorise Your Fabric

你画织物的方式可以分为三种(图片来源:Tim Von Reuden)

Vonreuden解释了如何增加价值和阴影,以创造更多的深度和重量。他说,“当绘制和再造织物时,所产生的皱纹类型都可以分为三个不同的类别:悬挂/放松、拉伸/拉伸和皱缩/压缩。”

悬挂式织物往往松散,外观流畅。拉伸后的织物形成长线,通常有一个支撑点。压缩织物相互缠绕,形成皱巴巴的区域。

这个建议来自ImagineFX,这是全球最畅销的数字艺术家杂志。在这里订阅

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