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35座令人难以置信的著名建筑

+$The world's most famous buildings can be a great source of inspiration for designers and artists. Whether it's the structural shapes, unique design concept or decorative details, buildings can provide ample inspiration for design projects of all kinds. Tourists travel the globe to seek out unique or historical architecture, and often visiting a famous building is one of the most memorable parts of a trip abroad.

+$A country's most famous buildings can tell us a lot about its way of life and the culture during the period when it was built; a bit like looking at a historical photograph. But unlike a photo, buildings continue to change after construction is finished. The usual wear and tear demands renovation and the changing tastes of society have their own impact on the design and functionality of a building.

+$In this article, we've rounded up some most incredible famous buildings for you to marvel at – these structures are amongst the+$most Instagrammable Places+$in the world. You might want to plan visiting a few of them on your next trip. If so, make sure you brush up on your摄影技巧+$before you go, or perhaps try some of our top草绘技巧+$so you can bring your own version home with you.

+$01. Sagrada Familia, Barcelona

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+$(Image credit: Lucas Neves on Unsplash)
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+$(Image credit: Diego Gennaro on Unsplash)

+$Work started on Antoni Gaudí's Sagrada Familia in 1882, but Barcelona's most famous basilica is probably best known for not being finished – over 130 years later, the temple is still just 70 per cent complete. It has also only recently been issued a proper permit for construction, and is expected to be finished in 2026. Even while it's still under construction, this magnificent gothic building is well worth a visit.

+$02. Notre Dame, Paris

+$The Notre Dame de Paris has long been one of the world's most celebrated cathedrals, and the spotlight has been firmly on this famous building since April 209, when a fire devastated the structure. We've included it on our list to remember it in its full glory. Construction began on this cathedral in 1160, and the building has since had a peppered history of destruction and reconstruction. Hopefully this next reconstruction will transform it to its past majesty, or perhaps take it in an exciting new direction.

+$03. Heydar Aliyev Center, Baku

+$This famous building was designed by celebrated architect Zaha Hadid

+$(Image credit: Rohit Potdar from Pexels)

+$The Heydar Aliyev Center is one of the most famous buildings designed by celebrated Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid. It's located in Baku, Azerbaijan, and is one of the newer designs on this list, having been completed in 2012. The design is noted for its distinctive, flowing lines and lack of sharp angles.

+$Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the commission following a competition in 2007. On the practice's网站+$, it explains the motivation behind the design: "The Center... breaks from the rigid and often monumental Soviet architecture that is so prevalent in Baku, aspiring instead to express the... optimism of a nation that looks to the future."

+$04. Cathedral of Brasilia, Brasilia

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The exterior of Brasilia by Florian Knorn via Wikipedia Commons

+$The exterior of Brasilia by Florian Knorn via Wikipedia Commons
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The stunning interior of Brasilia by Cayambe via Wikipedia Commons

+$The stunning interior of Brasilia by Cayambe via Wikipedia Commons


+$This curved beauty in Brazil's Brasilia is just as striking inside as outside with its beautiful stained glass and crown-like structure. It was created between 1958-1970 by Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa, who were known communists (an interesting point given the religious context). They rejected the trend for cube-like design favoured by their peers and celebrated the majesty of the curve.

+$05. Harpa Concert Hall, Reykjavik

Famous buildings: Harpa Concert Hall

+$The Harpa Concert Hall consists of a steel framework clad with geometric glass panels

+$(Image credit: Henning Larsen)

+$Harpa concert hall in Reykjavik was designed by Danish-Icelandic artist Olafur Elíasson  alongside Henning Larsen Architects and Batteríið Architects. The kaleidoscope effect of the crystaline shell deploys light and colour that plays with your senses when you enter the building. It's a shimmering sculpture, sitting on the shoreline linking sky and sea.

+$06. Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin

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+$(Image credit: Kayle Kaupanger on Unsplash)
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+$(Image credit: Nick Grant on Unsplash)

+$The Milwaukee Art Museum is an architectural landmark, comprised of three buildings. The War Memorial Center (1957) was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen; the Kahler Building (1975) by David Kahler; and the Quadracci Pavilion (2001) by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava.

酒店俯瞰着密歇根湖,通过缆绳状的行人天桥直接与威斯康星大道相连。行人可以在桥上穿过林肯纪念大道并继续进入展馆,而司机通过地下拱形停车库进入,在这里,成对的倾斜混凝土柱形成一个类似骨架的元素,形状像字母'V'。

+$07. Forbidden City, Beijing

Famous buildings: The Forbidden City in Beijing

紫禁城是中国北京市中心的宫殿建筑群。图片:Flickr上的calflier001

较少有一座着名的建筑物和一系列着名的建筑物 - 确切地说,建于公元1406年至1420年之间的980年 - 紫禁城是明朝至清末的皇帝之家,使其成为中国的政治中心半个千年。

这座前皇宫现在是故宫博物院的所在地,并于1987年被宣布为世界遗产。故宫被联合国教科文组织列为世界上最大的古代木结构建筑群,平均有1600万。自2016年以来每年都有访客 - 平均每天有40,000名访客。

+$08. The Dancing House, Prague

Famous buildings: The Dancing House in Prague

令人瞩目的舞蹈之家有Frank Gehry的标志

绰号The Dancing House,布拉格的Nationale-Nederlanden建筑由克罗地亚 - 捷克建筑师VladoMilunić和加拿大裔美国建筑师Frank Gehry设计。

由于99个混凝土板,每个都有不同的形状和尺寸,解构主义 - 或新巴洛克式 - 建筑形成了一种不同寻常的舞蹈形状。事实证明,这座建筑现在以捷克国家银行发行的2000捷克克朗金币为特色。

+$09. Great Mosque of Djenné, Djenné

The Great Mosque of Djenné

Djenné大清真寺以马里的徽章为特色。拍摄者Ruud Zwart

这座位于马里的清真寺是非洲最着名的建筑之一。据认为,自12世纪以来,该遗址已经存在一座清真寺,目前的结构于1907年重建。清真寺目前的结构是否受到法国建筑的影响(马里于1906年独立于法国)受到争议。

该建筑由在阳光下晒干的土砖,由沙子和土砖制成的砂浆以及使其表面光滑的石膏制成。每年一次,Djenné的人们都有一个节日,共同为清真寺做必要的维修工作。这座清真寺在马里非常重要,它以国家的徽章为特色。

+$10. Lotus Temple, New Dehli

The temple welcomes worshippers of all faiths

寺庙欢迎所有信仰的崇拜者
+$(Image credit: Swapnil Deshpandey from Pexels)

莲花寺是新德里的巴哈伊教堂,由27个类似莲花花瓣的建筑组成,通向一个高约40米的中央大厅。它有九个侧面,九个门,可容纳2500人。它的表面由希腊Mount Pentelicus的白色大理石制成,与用于建造帕台农神庙的大理石相同。

自1986年建成以来,它已成为世界上访问量最大的建筑之一,吸引了超过1亿人。

+$11. Himeji Castle, Himeji

Himeji Castle

+$Himeji Castle is particularly beautiful when the cherry blossoms are out. Image:维基共享共享上的卢卡斯

姬路城是一座位于京都附近的壮观的日本城堡。它已有400多年的历史,没有受到战争或任何自然灾害的破坏,并且由80多座建筑组成,这些建筑都通过大门和蜿蜒的小路连接在一起。

这座建筑本身就是一个奇迹,因其白色优雅的外观而常被称为白鹭或白苍鹭城堡。它也被称为像飞鸟一样。

+$12. Cologne Cathedral, Cologne

Famous buildings: Cologne Cathedral

德国访问量最大的地标

科隆大教堂是一座高哥特式的五座大教堂,其建筑始于1248年,并于1473年在建筑完工前停止。工作直到19世纪才恢复,最终于1880年完成。后来的工作忠实地遵循了原始的中世纪计划。

它以哥特式杰作而闻名,收藏了许多艺术品以及三王之王,传统上被认为是三王的遗体。

+$13. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

Famous buildings: Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem

圆顶清真寺是伊斯兰建筑的杰作

圆顶清真寺是伊斯兰建筑的杰作,是一座7世纪的建筑,位于耶路撒冷。由哈里发阿卜杜勒马利克于687年至691年间建造,八角形平面和圆形木屋圆顶采用拜占庭风格设计。苏莱曼一世于1561年在外观上添加了波斯瓷砖;后来增添了大理石,马赛克和彩陶的室内装饰。

现存最古老的伊斯兰纪念碑,圆顶清真寺已成为建筑和其他艺术活动的典范,已有一千多年的历史。

+$14. La Pedrera, Barcelona

Fanous buildings: La Pedrera in Barcelona

高迪的米拉之家(La Pedrera)是建筑史上最具想象力的房屋之一

+$Nested among the urban streets of Barcelona are some unusual and beautiful buildings by infamous architect Antoni Gaudí. His unique approach to the Art Nouveau movement generated some of the most creative buildings the world have ever seen. And La Pedrera is no exception.

这是建筑史上最富有想象力的房屋之一,它更像雕塑而不是建筑。外立面是一个多样和谐的起伏石块,加上锻造的铁制阳台,探索自然世界的不规则性。联合国教育,科学及文化组织(教科文组织)于1984年将这座建筑物视为世界遗产。

+$15. St Paul's Cathedral, London

Famous buildings: St Paul's Cathedral in London

英国建筑师克里斯托弗·雷恩爵士花了10年的时间来完成他对圣保罗的设计

+$London's most iconic building, St Paul's Cathedral, was designed by English architect Sir Christopher Wren. Sitting at the top of Ludgate Hill, the highest point in the City of London, its famous dome is one of the world's largest, measuring nearly 112 metres high.

该网站上的原始教堂成立于公元604AD。目前的英国巴洛克式教堂的工作始于17世纪,由克里斯托弗·雷恩(Christopher Wren)作为伦敦大火之后重大重建计划的一部分。

Wren于1666年开始在圣保罗工作,他的大教堂设计需要9年时间才能完成,实际施工需要35年。从那以后,圣保罗一直扮演着伦敦生活中不可或缺的一部分 - 作为城市天际线中的霸气元素,作为旅游和宗教崇拜的中心,最近作为反资本主义抗议活动的焦点。

+$16. Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur

Famous buildings: The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur

双子塔是马来西亚首都吉隆坡的标志性地标

Petronas Towers高451.9米,是马来西亚吉隆坡的两座摩天大楼。这些建筑在1998年至2004年间拥有世界上最高的建筑,是首都的标志性建筑。

+$The distinctive postmodern style was created by architects Cesar Pelli and Achmad Murdijat, engineer Deejay Cerico and designer Dominic Saibo under the consultancy of JC Guinto.

+$17. The White House, Washington

Famous buildings: The White House in Washington

+$The White House, designed by Irish architect James Hoban, took eight years to construct. Image: Matt Wade

+$Irish architect James Hoban was the man behind the design of the White House. In 1792 Hoban submitted a plan for the presidential mansion and subsequently got the commission to build the White House. Construction began in 1793 and was completed in 1801. The mansion, which has been home to every US leader since the country's second president John Adams, is made from white-painted Aquia sandstone.

+$18. Leaning Tower of Pisa, Pisa

Famous buildings: The Leaning Tower of Pisa

+$Due to restoration work carried out in 2001, the tower currently leans at just under 4 degrees. Image: Alkarex Malin äger

比萨斜塔是欧洲最引人注目的建筑结构之一。最倾向于倾斜的是,在一侧的软土地不能正确支撑结构的重量之后,塔在施工期间开始倾斜。

塔楼的建筑工作于1173年开始,持续了199年。围绕塔楼背后建筑师的真实身份存在很多争议 - 该设计最初归功于艺术家Bonnano Pisano,但研究也暗示了建筑师Diotisalvi。

+$19. The Kaaba, Mecca

Famous buildings: The Kabba in Mecca

卡巴是伊斯兰教中最神圣的空间

Kaaba,意为阿拉伯语立方体,是一座位于沙特阿拉伯麦加的方形建筑。 Kabba是伊斯兰教中最神圣的地方,优雅地挂在丝绸和棉质面纱上。每年都有数百万穆斯林前往卡巴去朝觐,这是一年一度的伊斯兰朝圣之旅。

这座小型方形建筑高约45英尺,墙壁宽一米,总面积约627平方英尺。

+$20. The Shard, London

Famous buildings: The Shard in London

碎片是一座95层高的摩天大楼,位于伦敦市中心

The Shard也被称为玻璃碎片,是一座95层高的摩天大楼,位于伦敦市中心。建设始于2009年,并于2012年完成,三年后,成为西欧最高的建筑。

The Shard由建筑师Renzo Piano设计,是英国第二高的独立结构。它的外观拥有11,000块玻璃面板 - 相当于八个温布利足球场或两个半特拉法加广场的面积。

该建筑物经过多次开发,在网站上被描述为“人们可以生活,工作和放松的垂直城市”。这个座右铭明显是由一只绰号为罗密欧的狐狸登上的,这只狐狸在建筑结束时在第72层被发现。

+$21. Las Lajas Sanctuary, Nariño

las lajas sanctuary in Colombia: famous buildings

这座教堂教堂的环境几乎不可能更具戏剧性。摄影:Steve Monty在Flickr上

这座教堂建在一个峡谷内,将它的一侧连接到另一侧,如果这不令人印象深刻,我们不知道是什么。这座哥特式教堂位于哥伦比亚南部,据报道,一名妇女和她的女儿在1754年看到了圣母玛利亚的一个幽灵,这使得以前聋哑女儿能够说话。

从那时起,各种神社已经建成,目前的建筑是在1916年至1949年之间建造的。

+$22. St Basil's Cathedral, Moscow

Famous buildings: St Basil's Cathedral in Moscow

莫斯科红场独特的圣巴西尔大教堂由建筑师Postnik Yakolev设计

不,我们没有在我们的列表中包含一块迪斯尼乐园建筑。这个装饰着糖果色的大教堂实际上是莫斯科最受欢迎的旅游景点。这个着名的地标,形状像篝火升起的火焰,位于克里姆林宫门外,标志着城市的几何中心。

这座大教堂建于1555年至1561年之间,是在伊凡四世(Ivan the Terrible)统治期间建造的。人们对这座建筑的建筑师Postnik Yakovlev知之甚少,但他显然是洋葱圆顶,锋利的尖刺和多边形塔的粉丝。

+$23. Empire State Building, New York

Famous buildings: The Empire State Building in New York

世界着名的帝国大厦的建设仅用了一年零45天就完成了

如果不包括这座宏伟的装饰艺术摩天大楼,我们就无法整理出世界着名建筑的名单。曾经是世界上最高的建筑,1930年圣帕特里克节的帝国大厦开始施工,仅在410天后完工。

+$The building was designed by William F Lamb of architectural firm Shreve, Lamb and Harmon. It was declared by the American Society of Civil Engineers to be one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World and is known around the world as an icon of New York City.

+$24. Lloyd's Building, London

Famous buildings: Lloyds Building in London

+$The award-winning Lloyd's building was designed by Italian-born architect Richard Rogers. Image: Aurelien Guichard

这座未来主义建筑看起来像是属于科幻电影,而不是伦敦的莱姆街。屡获殊荣的劳埃德建筑(也称为Inside-Out建筑)是标志性的建筑地标,也是伦敦天际线上最知名的建筑之一。

+$Architects Roger Stirk Harbour + Partners were behind the innovative design, which has its services – including water pipes and staircases – on the outside. Built between 1978 and 1986, the building also features 12 exterior lifts, which were the first of their kind in the UK.

+$25. Colosseum, Rome

Famous buildings: The Colosseum in Rome

+$The Colosseum is the largest Roman amphitheatre ever built. Image: David Iliff

这座位于罗马市中心的椭圆形圆形剧场被认为是古罗马人所取得的最伟大的建筑壮举之一。该体育场至少可容纳50,000名观众,主要用于角斗游戏。

建筑 - 主要使用混凝土和石材 - 始于公元72年左右,于公元80年完工。斗兽场的设计和形状一直是许多现代体育场馆的灵感来源。今天,它是罗马最受欢迎的旅游景点之一,每年吸引成千上万的游客。

+$26. Taj Mahal, Agra

Famous buildings: Taj Mahal in Agra

+$The Taj Mahal is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Image: Muhammad Mahdi Karim

泰姬陵被认为是“印度穆斯林艺术的明珠”,由莫卧儿皇帝沙贾汗建造。这座着名的地标经常被误认为是一座宫殿,实际上是为皇帝的妻子在她生下第14个孩子去世后建造的坟墓。

+$The Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture – an amalgamation of Persian, Turkish and Indian styles. Construction on the mausoleum began in 1632 and was completed in 1643. The surrounding buildings and gardens took around five more years to finish.

+$27. Chrysler Building, New York

Famous buildings: Chrysler Building in New York City

克莱斯勒大厦在帝国建立之前的11个月里,在1930年获得了世界最高建筑称号。图片来源:Joris Van Rooden

在20世纪早期,世界各地的人们都在争夺建造最高建筑的竞争。当时,这座华丽的装饰艺术摩天大楼几乎已经被曼哈顿银行超越,但它的尖顶(秘密建造)使它能够在1930年获得“世界上最高建筑”的称号。

+$It didn't last long though. Just a year later the Empire State Building was erected. Designed by architect William Van Alen, the skyscraper was commissioned by car manufacturer Walter P Chrysler, hence its name.

+$28. Sydney Opera House, Sydney

Famous buildings: Sydney Opera House

悉尼歌剧院是澳大利亚最着名的建筑标志

+$The Sydney Opera House is widely regarded as one of the greatest architectural works of the 20th century. The innovative design came from architect Jørn Utzon, who was relatively unknown until January 29, 1957 when his entry to the 'International competition for a national opera house at Bennelong Point, Sydney' was announced the winner.

美丽的建筑由三组互锁外壳组成,包括两个主要的表演大厅和一个餐厅。歌剧院是现代建筑的杰作,已成为悉尼和澳大利亚民族的标志性象征。

+$29. Space Needle, Seattle

Famous buildings: Space Needle in Seattle

+$40 years after its construction, the Space Needle remains a popular visitor destination. Image: Jordon Kalilich

华盛顿州西雅图的未来主义太空针塔是为1962年的世界博览会而建造的。着名的地标高184米,宽42米。

该设计是建筑师Edward E Carlson和John Graham之间的合作。这座建筑不仅是一个令人惊叹的建筑,而且它也是一个坚固的结构 - 它的建造是为了能够承受200英里每小时的风速和高达9.1级的地震。

+$30. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

Famous buildings: Hagia Sophia in Istanbul

现在是博物馆,圣索菲亚大教堂位于土耳其伊斯坦布尔

圣索非亚大教堂曾是一座教堂,后来成为一座清真寺,现在又成为一座博物馆,是一座建筑杰作。圣索菲亚大教堂位于土耳其伊斯坦布尔,是拜占庭式建筑的完美典范。

该建筑最初建于公元532年至公元537年之间,由于许多因素,包括在骚乱和地震中被烧毁,古老的大教堂自那时起已经多次重建。尽管如此,圣索非亚大教堂被公认为世界上最伟大的建筑之一。该建筑还在邦德电影Skyfall的开幕场景中展出。

+$31. Buckingham Palace, London

Famous buildings: Buckingham Palace in London

+$Buckingham Palace is one of London's most popular tourist attractions. Image: David Iliff

最初被称为白金汉宫的乔治三世于1735年购买了这座房产,当时这座豪宅不过是一座红砖房。从那时起,各种建筑师一直致力于建筑,使其成为今天的建筑,包括John Nash和Edmund Blore。

在第二次世界大战期间被轰炸不少于9次之后,宫殿也不得不接受大量的工作。然而,它仍然在运作,并且是当今世界上为数不多的皇家宫殿之一。

+$32. Fallingwater, Pennsylvania

Famous buildings: Fallingwater in Mill Run

+$Frank Lloyd Wright created this unique design for the Kauffman family in 1934. Image: Sxenko

+$Designed by famous American architect Frank Lloyd Wright in 1934, Fallingwater is quite possibly the most famous private residence in the world. But why? Well, the unique design makes it look like the house stretches out over a 30ft waterfall, with no solid ground beneath it.

事实并非如此,但创新的设计在1939年最终确定时引起了所有人的注意。它立刻成名,现在是一个自然的历史地标。它太酷了你甚至可以得到一个乐高版

+$33. Pantheon, Rome

Famous buildings: Pantheon in Rome

万神殿建于大约2000年前,它继续激励着世界各地的建筑师

罗马是许多令人惊叹的建筑的所在地,万神殿也不例外。而且,就像城市本身一样,它不是一天建成的。每次被摧毁两次并重建,建筑以矩形结构开始,随着时间的推移,它逐渐演变成今天看到的华丽圆顶建筑。

作为世界各地建筑师的灵感,万神殿屋顶仍然是世界上最大的未加固混凝土圆顶。历史学家之间存在很多争论,皇帝和建筑师对万神殿的设计负责,尽管众所周知,这座“众神殿”建于公元126年左右。

+$34. Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

Famous buildings: Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao

建筑师Frank Gehry在赢得建筑设计竞赛后,为该博物馆开发了独特的概念

+$The Guggenheim museum Bilbao is one of the most admired works of contemporary architecture. Canadian-born American architect Frank Gehry created the unique concept after winning an architectural competition to design the building.

自博物馆门于1997年开业以来,它一直被誉为20世纪最重要的建筑之一。建成20年后,博物馆每年迎来约100万游客。

+$35. Burj Khalifa, Dubai

Famous buildings: Burj Khalifa in Dubai

+$Don't look down! The world's tallest building in Dubai is over 800 metres high. Image: Nicolas Lannuzel

最后在我们的名单上 - 但绝不是最少 - 是世界上最高的建筑物Burj Khalifa。庞大的摩天大楼和迪拜市中心的宏伟中心高达828.9米。

+$Construction began on the 160-floor building in 2004 with its doors opening six years later in 2010. The task of creating the world's tallest manmade structure was awarded to the Chicago office of American architectural and engineering firm Skidmore, Owings and Merril LLP.

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