有史以来最伟大的35个CGI电影时刻

+$(Image credit: Walt Disney Studios)

+$Visual effects in the movies have evolved dramatically since their introduction in the 1980s. The art of creating realistic looking environments, monsters, creatures and buildings continues to evolve, with many 2D and3D电影+$now relying on the creative talent at special effects companies like Industrial Light & Magic and Weta to enhance their stories with stunning VFX.

+$In this article, we've rounded up our pick of the best CGI movie moments in movies old and new. Did your favourite make the cut?

+$If you're a digital artist and are motivated to up your game, take a look at our roundup of the最好的3D建模软件+$, or browse our showcase of incredible3D艺术获得更多灵感。

+$01. Interstellar

  • 导向器:克里斯托弗诺兰
  • +$VFX:DNEG

+$This fascinating exploration of space travel and the effects of time dilation features some beautiful effects work, including some truly realistic spaceship scenes (mainly done with miniatures) and a scientifically accurate CG representation of the supermassive black hole, Gargantua. But no one expected the final reel, in which astronaut Joseph Cooper (Matthew McConaughey) enters the ‘tesseract’, a four-dimensional construct of interlinked timelines, where he communicates with his daughter, Murph, in the far distant past.

+$VFX supervisor, Paul Franklin, told+$Art Of VFX+$that the concept was based on a three-dimensional extension of slitscan photography (used to great effect in 2001: A Space Odyssey). All the elements of Murph’s bedroom were scanned at high-res and used to create a digital version, and from this they generated the multiple extruded timelines. The 3D team had to come up with clever ways of handling the huge data load so they could render it using Houdini’s Mantra. This digital model was used to extend the physical tesseract set to infinity… and beyond.

+$Killer Sequence:+$That time-warping, mind-bending tesseract.

+$02. War for the Planet of the Apes

  • 导向器:+$Matt Reeves
  • +$VFX:Weta Digital

+$Watch it for the incredibly lifelike apes, of course. We could have included any of the three films, but with War for the Planet of the Apes, Weta Digital really nailed it, taking the levels of realism to new heights. There’s one scene where we see Caesar caged in the Alpha-Omega military base. Through the bars we see Woody Harrelson and his men, alongside a servile gorilla, and in the background is another cage full of apes. It’s night-time, it’s raining, the ape fur is wet and clumpy, and CG characters stand shoulder-to-shoulder with real actors… Despite being a compositor’s nightmare, it’s all totally seamless and utterly believable.

+$The New Zealand-based VFX house surpassed itself, not only with the incredible fidelity of the ape recreations, but also with entirely digital environments, water, weather and battle scenes. To do so it employed a range of in-house tools – Facets for facial performance capture; Tissue for muscle and skin; Wig for fur; Lumberjack for vegetation; Synapse for smoke and fire; Manuka for physically-based rendering – and the results speak for themselves.

+$Killer Sequence:+$The final battle is great, but, really, all of the VFX are outstanding.

+$03. The Jungle Book (2016)

  • 导向器:+$Jon Favreau
  • +$VFX:+$MPC, Weta Digital

+$This reimagining of Disney’s classic 1967 animated feature is groundbreaking for the photorealism of its entirely computer-generated environments and animals – plus the fact that its a cracking yarn, beautifully told. Apart from a handful of props, the only real thing in the movie is Mowgli, played by Neel Sethi.

+$To create the panoply of creatures needed for the film – 54 species and 224 unique animals in all – MPC relied on its in-house hair system, Furtility, while developing new software to generate authentic musculature. Houdini, Flowline and Maya were used for water, mudslides and fire, and in-house program Kali handled object destruction.

+$The scale of the project meant some of the workload was handed off to Weta Digital, which handled shots of Bagheera the tiger, plus King Louis and the destruction of the monkey temple – which should have been a doddle for the experienced Planet of the Apes team.

+$Killer Sequence:+$Baloo singing Bare Necessities while floating along an all-CG jungle river.

+$04. The Walk

  • 导向器:+$Robert Zemeckis
  • +$VFX:+$Atomic Fiction, RodeoFX, Universal Production Partners

+$Watch The Walk to experience, at first hand, Philippe Petit’s vertiginous high-wire walk between the twin towers of the World Trade Center in 1974. With the destruction of the towers in 2001, every aspect of the buildings had to be recreated in CG – along with the city of New York stretching off to the horizon. The task fell to three vendors: Atomic Fiction handled the wire walk; RodeoFX saw to the creation of ground-level shots of the towers; and Czech Republic-based UPP contributed a number of shots, including digital recreations of Paris plus head replacements, swapping the face of a real wire walker for that of Joseph Gordon-Levitt.

+$Overall, the work is stylishly convincing, and the climactic walk – which in reality took place 1,368 ft above World Trade Center Plaza – is just as nerve-jangling and heart-in-mouth as you’d expect. Only the top corner section of the south tower was physically built, surrounded by acres of green screen. Everything else – towers, sky, clouds, cityscape, slack-jawed bystanders, precipitous drop to certain death – is all digital, which was lit in Katana and rendered using V-Ray.

+$Killer Sequence:+$The dramatic walk between south tower and north tower – which Petit performed six times.

+$05. Avengers: End Game

  • 导向器:+$Anthony Russo, Joe Russo
  • +$VFX:+$ILM, Weta Digital, DNEG, Framestore, Cinesite, Digital Domain, Rise, Lola VFX, Cantina Creative, Capital T, Technicolor VFX, Territory Studio

+$We couldn’t not include one of the biggest blockbusters of all time, which is the culmination of a decade of Marvel Universe movies and a damn fine adventure to boot. If you sat patiently waiting for the post-credit sequence, you’ll know just how many VFX studios worked to deliver this incredible visual feast; after all, there’s barely a single frame without extensive CG work.

+$Highlights include Digital Domain and Weta Digital’s brilliant work on Thanos, an entirely CG character who takes up an hour of screen time, plus ILM and Framestore sharing duties in bringing ‘Smart Hulk’ to life. For the climactic battles, ILM handled the assault on Wakanda, while Weta Digital was responsible for the spectacular final onslaught against Thanos and his massed armies – both of which were remarkable undertakings, pushing the possibilities of VFX to their limits.

+$Killer Sequence:+$The final confrontation, which brings 21 films’ worth of characters together for the MCU’s equivalent of the Battle of Helm’s Deep.

+$06. King Arthur: Legend of the Sword (2017)

  • 导向器:盖里奇
  • VFX:Framestore,ScanlineVFX,Method Studios,MPC

尽管大卫贝克汉姆有一个客串,盖伊里奇重新讲述了亚瑟王传奇,但他的五个(五个!)续集被立即取消了。然而好消息是值得关注的一个序列发生在电影的开头,因为Mordred的集结力量围攻Camelot,一个巨大的石头堡垒在岩石露头上面。这场战斗是一次真正令人印象深刻的大规模毁灭性场面,并展示了Framestore曾经做过的一些最复杂的模拟工作。

电影的其余部分有点混合,但确实有很多奇幻的事情。在与亚瑟和他的叔叔,恶魔骑士Vortigern之间的高潮遭遇中,有一条巨型蛇和一条非常酷的受黑客影响的剑战斗 - 你可能想要快速前进。

+$Killer Sequence:在“指环王:王者归来”中的一个场景中,莫德雷德的部队在成千上万的大象的陪伴下接近卡米洛特,伴随着300英尺高的大象。不完全是。

+$07. Paddington 2 (2017)

  • 导向器:保罗金
  • VFX:Framestore,Rodeo FX

+$Not only is Paddington 2 a delightful, funny and heart-warming movie – garnering 100 per cent on Rotten Tomatoes and becoming the site’s best-reviewed film of all time – it’s also a technical masterpiece. The titular hero looks photoreal in every single shot (all 1,100 of them) and is integrated with the live-action footage flawlessly; kudos to Framestore for pulling off this incredible achievement. Indeed, as a sign of the team’s dedication, one time-lapse shot of the prison canteen changing into a chintzy tea room – a combination of CG bear, CG props and live action – took nine months to complete.

但制作CG生物是一回事;创造一种引发整个情感的表演是另一回事。如果你的眼睛没有眼泪,那么你真的需要看精神科医生。 (还有最佳演员奥斯卡进入CG创作前多久?)

+$Killer Sequence:当帕丁顿决定通过洗窗户赚钱时,有一些精心编排的闹剧,以及帕丁顿用自己作为窗户海绵的镜头。热闹且技术上的崇高。

+$08. Doctor Strange (2016)

  • 导向器:斯科特德里克森
  • VFX:工业灯光与魔术,Framestore,Method Studios,Luma Pictures

漫威电影就像神奇宝贝;你必须抓住所有人(在电影院)。但严重的是,漫威漫画宇宙中的这个略微左侧的进入确实提供了一个引人入胜的故事和一个催眠 - 如果有点令人困惑 - 视觉体验。

当这个故事涉及跳跃的巫师,替代世界和时间旅行时,你知道你正在疯狂骑行,并且需要一些VFX供应商才能提供1,450个效果镜头。从发光的魔法咒语和粒子效果到人工智能的CG斗篷,再到自己折叠的Inception风格的城市景观,Strange博士拥有一切。

+$Killer Sequence:+$Stephen Strange being chased by Kaecilius (Mads Mikkelsen) through a twisting, morphing, Möbius strip of New York City – it simply begs the question: How did the hell did they do that?

+$09. Blade Runner 2049 (2017)

  • 导向器:丹尼斯维伦纽夫
  • VFX:Framestore,Double Negative,Rodeo FX

对于原版的粉丝来说,令人心碎的是,我们有些人等了35年的续集一直是票房失望。但这并不是因为没有尝试:凭借1.85亿美元的制作预算,它拥有一些最令人惊叹,美丽和逼真的视觉效果,以优雅的银幕。整部电影令人着迷,但亮点包括Joi,Ryan Gosling的全息女友,当她与现实世界互动时的作品,以及Framestore对圣地亚哥广大垃圾场的惊人可视化,这些都是令人信服的。

但是再一次,这个节目的明星是夜间洛杉矶的霓虹灯装饰的都市风景,由DNEG和Rodeo FX精心设想,它采用了数百个不同的建筑物,包括数十亿个多边形。如果您没有在大屏幕上看到Blade Runner 2049,那么您真的错过了。

+$Killer Sequence:+$The drone’s-eye view of the ruins of Las Vegas is simply breathtaking (and did you spot Deckard’s car from the end of Blade Runner, abandoned on the strip?)

+$10. Rogue One (2016)

  • 导向器:Gareth Edwards
  • VFX:工业光与魔,Hybride,Ghost VFX

+$Arguably the best Star Wars film since Disney dropped $4 billion in George Lucas’s lap, Rogue One also delivered what Star Wars fans wanted: spaceships, likeable robots and tons of homages to the original trilogy. But, with the benefit of technology 40 years more advanced than that used on the first movie, Rogue One looks the business too.

ILM采取了一些勇敢的举动,包括Grand Moff Tarkin(Peter Cushing)和年轻的Leia公主(Carrie Fisher)的数字娱乐活动,这些活动有时令人惊讶地狡猾。然而,VFX巨兽在一些令人难以置信的太空战斗和令人震惊的Jedha City破坏 - 以及大部分周围地形 - 中大踏步前进。

+$Throw in a handful of cameo appearances, and some seamless updates of X-Wing pilot footage from the '70s, and this entertaining sci-fi romp took fan service to another level.

+$Killer Sequence:+$The attack on (a mostly CG) Scarif is a wonder to behold: the AT-AT walker battle on the beach, the rebel assault on the shield generator, and that bold move by a Hammerhead Corvette… (who knew Star Destroyers were so flimsy?)

+$11. Pearl Harbour (2001)

  • 导向器:迈克尔贝
  • VFX:ILM

凭借沉重的剧本,沉重的表演,笨拙的节奏和不敏感的事实不准确,珍珠港值得一看的唯一原因是为了娱乐1941年臭名昭着的袭击事件。令人难以置信的是,在电影中只有四部完全是CG的镜头,包括亚利桑那号航空母舰爆炸的两个镜头,宽镜头角度需要四个月的恒定效果才能完美。

ILM使用针对攻击序列的软件组合,包括AliasStudio,Maya和Softimage进行基本建模,并使用其专有软件Zeno进行许多刚体仿真。为了遵守环境规则,VFX主管Eric Brevig还必须编写一个新的软件来创建所需的烟羽量。因此,虽然这是一部可怕的电影,但我们不禁为真正精彩的CG效果鼓掌。

+$Killer Sequence:详细介绍日本人对美国海军基地的惊人有效突击袭击事件。

+$12. Cloverfield (2008)

  • 导向器:马特里夫斯
  • VFX:双重否定

这可能是哥斯拉的分拆,因为神秘而严重的愤怒生物攻击纽约,但这是一个衍生物。 Cloverfield是如何将手持式真人动作与高品质CG效果相结合的绝佳范例。

最恐怖的序列发生在早期,当时自由女神像的头部被未知和看不见的力量推向了道路。在全帧中可以看到几秒钟,头部本身必须被构建为具有精确纹理的非常详细的3D模型。

生产使用了4年和5K的头部静止图像,这些图像是在几年前进行了标志性清洁后在线放置的。这些详细描述了头部的面板和污垢区域,可以在纹理模型时用作参考。 JJ艾布拉姆斯的天才与卓越的效果相结合显然是成功的秘诀。

+$Killer Sequence:自由女神像的划伤头在纽约街上航行,暗示着即将来临的危险。

+$13. Terminator Salvation (2009)

  • 导向器:McG
  • VFX:ILM,Asylum,Rising Sun Pictures和Matte World Digital

+$You've got to feel sorry for John Connor: his only real friend was a machine that once tried to kill him and is now dead. To his credit, though, he is very determined and returns in the fourth Terminator instalment, ready to kick more shiny metal ass. Among its 1,500 VFX shots, T4 features an impressive 60ft, headless, biped robot – the aptly named Harvester – on a rampage.

巨大的机器人拥有电影最复杂的装备之一。 ILM使用最初为变形金刚开发的技术,在选择要控制的部分时为动画师提供额外的灵活性。 ILM还在RenderMan中集成了一个节能着色器,以实现更精确的照明,并应对沙漠条件的极端对比。卡车,Moto终结者和巨型运输车的随后部分也不错。

+$Killer Sequence:无头的收割机机器人在寻找人类时砸碎了一个加油站。

+$14. 10,000 BC (2008)

  • 导向器:Roland Emmerich
  • VFX:双重负片(广角镜头)MPC(中等和特写镜头)

如果你可以忽略剧本,表演,历史不准确和奇怪的伪科幻结尾,公元前10,000年是一部非常酷的电影,有一些来自MPC和Double Negative的优秀外汇作品。吉萨遗址的广阔景观主要是由约阿希姆格鲁宁格以1:24的比例建造的模型,建于纳米比亚的实际电影集附近,但它们增强了数字双打,尘埃和道具。

然而,最好的顺序是踩踏事件,在这里,一群猛犸象被释放出来,在拥有50,000名数字奴隶的建筑工地中造成严重破坏。完全CG套装与真人动作和模特镜头完美融合,总而言之,它是一部适合史诗般夸张的电影的史诗高潮。

+$Killer Sequence:为了使金字塔建筑工地陷入停顿状态,50只圈养猛犸象受到惊吓。

+$15. The Perfect Storm (2000)

  • 导向器:沃尔夫冈彼得森
  • VFX:ILM

乔治克鲁尼可能是一个观察者,但他在这部电影中的角色并不是很聪明。他扮演的是一个忽略天气警告的渔船船长Billy Tyne,这是一个基于1991年Andrea Gail真实故事的故事。结束序列是一个巨大的100英尺波浪,最终倾覆了船只。总的来说,这部电影有90个完全CG镜头,所有这些都包括水元素。

另外220张镜头需要CG海洋与在巨大的可移动渔船上拍摄的真人动画片段合成。开发了一个定制的流体动力学系统来创建一个逼真的海洋,并为Maya编写了30多个插件,以实现复杂的效果。

除此之外,着色器和粒子系统的独立应用程序也是内部编写的。在一部稍微令人失望的电影中,庞大的视觉特效VFX留下了最持久的印象。

+$Killer Sequence:一艘渔船及其船员在暴风雨的海面上遇到麻烦。

+$Next page: More of the greatest CGI moments of all time



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